Evolutionsbiologie / Evolutionary Biology

 

Bewilligungen / Grants 2009

Stipendien

Doktorandenstipendium "Evolutionary reproductive morphology of
caecilian amphibians"

Bewilligung: 22.05.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

The genital morphology of an organism is related to differences in
modes of reproduction and fertilization. Hence, the comparative
investigation of copulatory organs will give important insights into
the evolution of reproduction and life history. Reproductive
morphology has attracted much attention in evolutionary biology
research, especially in animals having internal fertilisation. In this
project the diversity of reproductive organs of caecilian amphibians
will be studied in a comparative evolutionary framework. Caecilians
are limbless tropical amphibians, which have received little
scientific attention. However, caecilians display a high diversity of
reproductive modes including transitions from oviparity to viviparity.
Among amphibians caecilians also show an exceptionally high level of
parental care and investment, ranging from egg guarding, maternal
dermatotrophy to intra-oviductal feeding in viviparous forms. Thus
their extremely variable life history makes them an ideal model group
for evolutionary reproductive morphology studies. The goal of this
project will be to use a multi-level approach to fully understand the
link between genital morphology and the evolution of reproductive
modes in this modern amphibians.

Universität Jena
Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und
Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum
Susanne Kühnel
Erbertstraße 1
07743 Jena
Tel.: 03641 949 165
Fax : 03641 949 142

Universität Jena
Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und
Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum
Dr. Alexander Kupfer
Erbertstr. 1
07743 Jena
Tel.: 03641 949183
Fax: 03641 949 142
Homepage: http://www.uni-jena.de/szeb.html

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Doktorandenstipendium "Retention and functional adaptation of
duplicated genes during the evolution of plant stress response"

Bewilligung: 12.05.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

One of the fundamental paradigms in evolutionary biology is that gene
duplication facilitates novelty. In a changing environment, adaptation
is often driven by expression divergence between the two paralogs
following an initial duplication event. The aim of this project is to
extend the understanding of the evolution of genes that facilitate
adaptation to changing environments in plants, primarily in the model
organism Arabidopsis thaliana. In particular, it is aimed to study the
effects of different duplication modes on gene evolution along with
the nature of their functional development (neo- vs. sub-functionalization). Here, the focus will be on genes related to the stress response system of plants which is composed of the three stages of reception, signalling, and transcriptional response. Each of these stages can be shaped by different evolutionary properties such as retention rates or sequence and/or expression divergence. Understanding how the evolution of duplicated genes forms the stress system of plants will help us to understand how nature coordinates adaptation to a changing environment.

Universität Münster
Institut für Evolution und Biodiversität,
Evolutionäre Bioinformatik
Lothar Wissler
Hüfferstraße 1
48149 Münster
Tel.: 0251 83 21633
Fax : 0251 83 24668
Homepage: http://www.uni-muenster.de/Evolution.ebb/People/

Universität Münster
FB Biologie
Institut für Evolution und Biodiversität
Prof. Dr. Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Schlossplatz 4
48149 Münster
Tel.: 0251 8321630
Fax: 0251 8321631
Homepage: http://www.uni-muenster.de/evolution/ebb

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "The evolution of species recognition and sexual selection in Chorthippus grasshoppers"

Bewilligung: 28.04.2009  Laufzeit:  2 Jahre

Often, sexually selected traits do not only play a role in
intraspecific mate choice, but also in the context of species
recognition. Whether these two processes are evolutionarily
independent or whether they involve the same mechanisms remains a
largely open question. In this project, this issue will be tackled
experimentally using Chorthippus grasshoppers as the model system and male courtship songs as the focal sexually selected trait. Females
usually respond to attractive songs, but if an unattractive signal is
presented, their responsiveness even to attractive songs is
subsequently inhibited. The temporal trajectory of this suppression
will be assayed in a controlled laboratory setup. The strength and
duration of the inhibition are hypothesized to depend on the species
identity of the unattractive male, with heterospecifics leading to a
longer-lasting disruption. If confirmed, this may then indicate that
different mechanisms or memory pathways are triggered in the two
contexts, species recognition and intraspecific mate choice, thus
opening new perspectives for further experiments.

Universität Bielefeld
Abt. für Evolutionsbiologie
Dr. Munjong Kolss
Morgenbreede 45
33615 Bielefeld
Tel.: 0521 106 2719
Fax : 0521 106 6426
Homepage: http://www.uni-bielefeld.de/biologie/Evolutionsbiologie/eng/07-kolss_eng.html

Universität Bielefeld
Fakultät für Biologie
Abt. Evolutionsbiologie
Prof. Dr. Klaus Reinhold
Morgenbreede 45
33615 Bielefeld
Tel.: 0521 1062721
Fax: 0521 1066426

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "Adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress in wild tomato species" (Extension)

Bewilligung: 15.04.2009  Laufzeit:  1 Jahr

Wild tomato species, which originated in western South America and the Galapagos Islands, are found in a wide range of habitats, and have thus to cope with various abiotic (e.g. temperature fluctuations, drought) and biotic stresses (e.g. attack by pathogens and herbivores). In order to study the genetic basis of such adaptations, the following specific aims will be persued: First,new methods will be derived for estimating parameters of the speciation process, namely recurrent gene flow between the incipient species, taking into account the specific metapopulation structure of wild tomato species. Second, methods will be develped to study in detail the population history of the tomato species, including seed banks, population subdivision, and population size expansion. Third, it will be attempted to correlate geographical information on tomato with environmental variables, using new methods and data from the Geographical Information System (GIS). The results of these studies are key theoretical requirements for detecting selection in genes underlying adaptation in tomatoes.

Universität München
Evolutionsbiologie
Dept. Biologie II
Dr. Aurelien Tellier
Großhadernerstraße 2
82152 Planegg-Martinsried
Tel.: 089 218 074 102
Fax: 089 218 074 104

Universität München
Lehrstuhl für Evolutionsbiologie
Dept. Biologie
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Stephan
Grosshaderner Straße 2
82152 Planegg-Martinsried
Tel.: 089 218 074 102
Fax: 089 218 074 104
Homepage: http://www.zi.biologie.uni-muenchen.de/evol/EvoBio.html

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "Evolutionary costs and benefits of trans-generational immune priming in a sex-role reversed fish"

Bewilligung: 15.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

The transfer of genetic information across generations is a prerequisite of evolution. However, information can also be transferred to offspring non-genetically. Such transgenerational effects are particularly relevant in host-parasite interactions, where e.g. vertebrate mothers transfer antibodies to their offspring via eggs, blood or milk. Given the fitness costs and prevalence of parasites, such trans-generational immune priming may profoundly affect coevolutionary dynamics. Here the costs and interaction of transgenerational versus genetic determinants of parasite resistance will be studied in a fish with sex-role reversal. In the pipefish Syngnathus typhle males breed eggs in a placenta-like brood pouch. It is hypothesized that (i) under sex-role reversal males rather than females transfer antibodies or other immune components to the offspring. (ii) This should vary with the MHC genotype of parents. (iii) Immune priming is costly for parents, and it will be asked which costs offspring pay for immune activation. (iv) Under rapidly changing parasite genotypes of an abundant trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua), immune priming is less beneficial than under a genetically constant parasite regime.

Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften an der Universität Kiel
(IFM-GEOMAR)
Olivia Roth
Düsternbrooker Weg 20
24105 Kiel

Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften an der Universität Kiel
(IFM-GEOMAR)
FE Evolutionsökologie
Prof. Dr. Thorsten Reusch
Düsternbrooker Weg 20
24105 Kiel
Tel.: 0431 600 4550
Homepage: http://www.ifm-geomar.de/index.php?id=treusch

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "The importance of evolutionary reservoirs for pathogen emergence: an experimental test of the theoretical predictions with a Caenorhabditis elegans pathogen model system"

Bewilligung: 15.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Microbial parasites are ubiquitous and infect all living beings. Recent advances in theoretical epidemiology highlight the role of immunodeficient hosts as "incubators" for novel pathogen strains. However, none of the predictions has been tested experimentally. Here, these hypotheses will be tested using the C. elegans model system. This nematode possesses naturally developed physiological defence mechanisms against pathogens, and offers an exceptional opportunity to study the evolutionary context of pathogen adaptation. This proposal integrates evolutionary biology with molecular biology, epidemiology and medicine through the use of experimental evolution. Immunocompromised C. elegans hosts will be infected with several bacterial pathogens, and the evolutionary outcomes across pathogen species and type of C. elegans immunodeficiency will be compared. The underlying genetics of virulence evolution will be reconstructed by subsequent sequence analysis. This project will provide experimental insight into the temporal dynamics and the underlying genetics of pathogen evolution in immunocompromised hosts.

Universität Kiel
Zoologisches Institut
Evolutionsökologie und -genetik
Gunther Jansen, M.Sc.
Am Botanischen Garten 19
24118 Kiel

Universität Kiel
Zoologisches Institut
Evolutionsökologie und -genetik
Prof. Dr. Hinrich Schulenburg
Am Botanischen Garten 19
24118 Kiel
Tel.: 0431 880 4143
Fax: 0431 880 2403

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Doktorandenstipendium "The enigma of sexual vs. asexual reproduction: Evolution and adaptative potential in gonochoristic, hermaphroditic and parthenogenetic nematode species"

Bewilligung: 15.04.2009  Laufzeit:  4 Jahre

The persistence of asexual reproduction is still an enigma. Plenty of theories explaining the evolution of sex have been developed. However, the question why sexual reproduction bearing the 'twofold cost of sex' is so ubiquitous, while ancient asexual taxa, doomed to extinction due to accumulation of deleterious mutations, still persist, remains unanswered. Some empirical studies addressing the evolution of sex have been conducted but results are inconsistent and no generally accepted single theory exists. To develop refined models more data are needed. Nematodes appear to be suitable study objects as all reproductive modes exist there even within a single genus and tools are available to unravel the genetic basis of different types of reproduction. This study will compare the adaptive potential between such nematodes by assessing mutation rates under neutral evolution and artificial selection pressure. Furthermore, the study includes aspects of 'applied science' i.e. development of drug- and pesticide-resistance.

Universität Köln
Zoologisches Institut
Philipp Schiffer
Kerpener Straße 15
50933 Köln

Universität Köln
Zoologisches Institut
Prof. Dr. Einhard Schierenberg
Kerpener Straße 15
50933 Köln
Tel.: 0221 470 3109
Fax: 0221 470 4987

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "The role of skeletal microstructure in evolution"

Bewilligung: 15.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Living systems exert exquisite control on the formation of biominerals producing intricate structures that are highly suited for purpose. Underlying the morphological and functional diversity of biomineralised structures is a surprising evolutionary stability in terms of the types and polymorphs of minerals produced. This surprising inertness to evolutionary change probably reflects the elaborate biochemical machinery behind biomineralization in complex organisms that not only controls composition but also crystal nucleation, growth and orientation. In this context it seems likely that evolutionary changes resulting in compositional shifts or the major reorganisation of the crystal architecture of skeletal hard parts represent evolutionary adaptations to changing environmental influences at the time of their origin. The aim of this project is to determine the conditions under which microstructural evolution is initiated. This will be done by focussing on the shells of brachiopods which are particularly well suited for this study as they have an exceptionally abundant fossil record spanning 530 million years and exhibit a diverse range of microstructures.

University of Glasgow
Geographical and Earth Sciences
Dr. Uwe Balthasar
GROSSBRITANNIEN

University of Glasgow
Geographical and Earth Sciences
Gregory Building
Prof. Dr. Maggie Cusack
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Humboldt-Universität Berlin
Museum für Naturkunde
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Martin Aberhan

Ansprechpartner:
University of Glasgow
Geographical and Earth Sciences
Dr. Uwe Balthasar
Lilybank Gardens
Glasgow  G12 8QQ
GROSSBRITANNIEN

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "A multidimensional approach to infer the role of geomorphology in lineage diversification"

Bewilligung:  15.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Das Vorhaben wurde am 21.10.2011 von Braunschweig nach Trier umgesetzt.

150 years after the first publication of the Evolutionary Theory patterns and processes of lineage diversification are still one of the most challenging fields in evolutionary biology. The objective of this project is to assess the role of geomorphological complexity in lineage diversification using a vertebrate model group (Anolis lizards). Adaptive lineage diversification has been extensively studied and verified in the Caribbean portion of this radiation but which evolutionary processes operate on the same genus in a mainland setting is yet enigmatic. Comparing variation in adaptive and neutral markers of adjacent island, coastal lowland, and mountain communities of mainland Anolis lineages on multiple spatial and taxonomic levels will identify the effect of an extrinsic factor (geomorphology, promoting spatial differences in selective pressure) on clade diversification. Novel methods of landscape genetics, phylogeography, and community ecology will be integrated to infer whether (i) species richness is higher in geomorphologically complex areas, and if this can be assigned to locally higher diversification rates. The selected setting and model group will furthermore allow to test (ii) for the predominant geographical mode of lineage diversification in geomorphologically complex areas.

Universität Trier
Fachbereich VI
Geographie/Geowissenschaften
Biogeographie
Dr. Katharina C. Wollenberg-Valero

Harvard University, Boston / Cambridge
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology,
Museum of Comparative Zoology
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Losos
USA

Universität Konstanz
FB Biologie
Lehrstuhl für Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie
Prof. Dr. Axel Meyer

Technische Universität Braunschweig
Zoologisches Institut
Abt. Evolutionsbiologie
Prof. Dr. Miguel Vences

Universität Trier
Geographie / Geowissenschaften
Biogeographie
Prof. Dr. Michael Veith

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Trier
Fachbereich VI
Geographie/Geowissenschaften
Biogeographie
Dr. Katharina C. Wollenberg-Valero
Postfach
54286 Trier
Tel.: 06512013646
Fax: 06512013851

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Doktorandenstipendium "Towards the understanding of the biogeographic evolution of Madagascar´s unique herpetofauna"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  2 Jahre  6 Monate

Madagascar is famous for its biodiversity and its high prevalence of microendemic species, particularly among amphibians and reptiles. Most of these are forest dwelling and have high species-level turnover on very small geographic scales. Therefore Madagascar is especially suitable for studies on speciation and adaptive radiation, because the species-richness and the several endemic radiations allow statistical comparisons of evolutionary patterns. Recent studies have challenged the traditional view on Madagascar's biogeography by showing that in different vertebrate groups the primary phylogenetic split is between a northern and a southern clade. Interestingly, there is no obvious biogeographic barrier which would explain this primary biogeographic division between the northern and southern parts of Madagascar`s east-coast, although major rivers may elsewhere on the island play a major role. By using an approach that is based on a combination of distribution ranges, comparative phylogeography and population genetics with a distinct a-priori-sampling design, it is aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary processes shaping the recent biogeography on Madagascar`s east-coast, and thereby to gain insights into the prevalent mechanisms of biotic diversification in this tropical model system.

Technische Universität Braunschweig
Zoologisches Institut
Philip-Sebastian Gehring
Spielmannstr. 8
38106 Braunschweig
Tel.: 0531 391 3237
Fax: 0531 391 8198
Homepage: http://www.zoologie.tu-bs.de/

Technische Universität Braunschweig
Zoologisches Institut
Abt. Evolutionsbiologie
Prof. Dr. Miguel Vences
Spielmannstraße 8
38106 Braunschweig
Tel.: 0531 391 3237
Fax: 0531 391 8198

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Doktorandenstipendium "Cognition mediated floral evolution: Pollinator decision making in a virtual pollination ecology paradigm"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Das Vorhaben wurde am 23.11.2009 von Bielefeld nach Berlin umgesetzt.

Using conventional methods it is extremely difficult to test hypotheses and even to make predictions about the strength and outcome of pollinator exerted selection in plantpollinator systems. These co-evolutionary relationships are highly complex: plants with different nectar production characteristics compete with each other for pollinator visits and pollinators compete for nectar. Furthermore, the decision-making mechanisms that pollinators, especially mammals such as nectar-feeding bats, employ in order to choose between different nectar sources are still poorly understood. These hurdles can be overcome by the novel research method virtual pollination ecology, in which the evolution of virtual plants is guided by the cognitive choices of real pollinators. It is planned to apply this method using artificial flowers with user-controllable nectar production characteristics and nectar-feeding bats as well as different insect pollinators as model animals. The goal of this study is to analyze the nectar production patterns that are being virtually selected by the different pollinator groups in order to understand how the pollinators' cognitive mechanisms affect the evolution of flowering plants.

Humboldt-Universität Berlin
Institut für Biologie
Lehrstuhl für Kognitive Neurobiologie
Vladislav Nachev
Invalidenstraße 43
10115 Berlin

Humboldt-Universität Berlin
Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I
Institut für Biologie
Lehrstuhl für Kognitive Neurobiologie
Prof. Dr. York Winter
Invalidenstraße 43
10115 Berlin
Tel.: 030 450 539 738

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Doktorandenstipendium "Theory of Mind in Great Apes - The Understanding of Knowledge and Beliefs of Others"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Theory of mind, the ability to explicitly understand psychological states such as intentions, knowledge and beliefs in others, is often supposed to be the difference between humans and all other animals. However, there is currently a debate if great apes have more or less social cognitive skills than presumed earlier and how theory of mind evolved in humans. The aim of this project is to investigate three aspects of theory of mind in great apes that have not been shown before and would be an important contribution to the debate: 1.) The understanding of knowledge through inferences of others, 2.) the understanding that others can have false beliefs and act upon them and 3.) the ability to use these skills actively for manipulation and deception of others. Additionally, it is planned to investigate corvids that also show remarkable social cognitive skills irrespective of their distant phylogeny.

Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie
Abteilung für vergleichende und Entwicklungspsychologie
Martin Schmelz
Deutscher Platz 6
04103 Leipzig

Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie
Abteilung für vergleichende und Entwicklungspsychologie
Direktor
Prof. Dr. Michael Tomasello
Deutscher Platz 6
04103 Leipzig
Tel.: 0341 35 50 400
Fax: 0341 35 50 119

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Doktorandenstipendium "Parallel evolutionary adaptation of gene expression in two marine angiosperm species, Zostera marina and Zostera noltii, in response to a geographic temperature cline"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Local adaptations of plant populations to environmental gradients are a sign for fast microevolutionary divergence among populations, yet the underlying genetic basis is largely unresolved. In this project local plant adaptations of two closely related marine angiosperm species, Zostera marina and Zostera noltii, that occur along a pronounced thermal cline, will be assessed at the transcriptomic level. The transcriptomic response will be measured for defined genotypes subjected to heat stress experiments to allow for comparisons between genotypes within a population as well as between populations within and among species. The transcriptomic response will be assessed via assembly of ESTs collected using 454 pyrosequencing technology. The question addressed in this proposal is whether adaptation of the two closely related species collected from the same environmental conditions occurs in parallel. Furthermore the extend of the variation arising from neutral genetic drift or natural selection that is observed in the transcriptomic response within one species will also be quantified.

Universität Münster
Institut für Evolution und Biodiversität
Evolutionäre Bioinformatik
Susanne Franssen
Hüfferstr. 1
48149 Münster
Tel.: 0251 83 21633
Fax: 0251 83 24668
Homepage: http://www.uni-muenster.de/Evolution.ebb/People/Susanne/

Universität Münster
FB Biologie
Institut für Evolution und Biodiversität
Prof. Dr. Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Schlossplatz 4
48149 Münster
Tel.: 0251 8321630
Fax: 0251 8321631
Homepage: http://www.uni-muenster.de/evolution/ebb

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Doktorandenstipendium "Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  4 Jahre

While mate-guarding behavior has been proven to increase mating and reproductive success of male primates in multi-male groups, little is known about the costs and limitations of such behavior. The aim of the present study is therefore to quantify overall costs and benefits of male mate-guarding in multi-male multi-female primate groups using the long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) as a model species. The study will be carried out on four groups living around the Ketambe Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Data will come from (1) behavioral observations, (2) energy balance assessment through metabolic measurements in urine (C-peptide and ketone), (3) stress levels measurements in feces (glucocorticoids), (4) weight measurement and (5) genetic paternity analysis. Hormone, metabolite and genetic paternity analysis will take place at the German Primate Centre. This study will have significant implications for our understanding of male reproductive decisions, the evolution of human and non-human primate mating strategies and the origin of the human mating system diversity.

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Reproduktionsbiologie
Cédric Girard-Buttoz
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 3851 1287

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Dept. of Reproductive Biology
Dr. Antje Engelhardt
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 3851202
Fax: 0551 3851 288

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Doktorandenstipendium "Influences of intraguild predation and parasitism on the life-histories of avian top predators"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Eagle owls Bubo bubo predate on goshawk Accipiter gentilis and common buzzard Buteo buteo while goshawks are clearly dominant over common buzzards. Based on a long-term life history dataset as well as natural and behavioural experiments, the following three hypotheses will be tested: 1. Goshawks will take over buzzard territories. 2. Buzzard and gowhawk reproduction are negatively affected by predation by eagle owls and these effects are more pronounced in buzzards. 3. Higher predation risk selects for different life history traits: earlier start of reproductive career, higher reproductive output. Owls and diurnal raptors also share many parasites, which might affect them in a common manner. Depending on how susceptible each host is, parasitic stress can have synergistic effects with predatory stress or induce a partial predatory release. These effects on the trophic cascade will be described by detailed surveys on parasitic dynamics. Experiments will deliver estimates of parasitic effects on the life histories in this top predatory guild.

Universität Bielefeld
Lehrstuhl für Verhaltensforschung
Nayden Chakarov

Universität Bielefeld
Fakultät für Biologie
Lehrstuhl für Verhaltensforschung
Prof. Dr. Fritz Trillmich

University of Cambridge
Department of Zoology
Dr. Oliver Krüger
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Bielefeld
Lehrstuhl für Verhaltensforschung
Nayden Chakarov
Bielefeld

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Doktorandenstipendium "The role of ecological constraints in the cooperative breeding system of the El Oro Parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi)"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

The El Oro Parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi) is a globally endangered species confined to the foothills of the Andes in south-western Ecuador. This non-territorial parrot species shows a cooperative breeding behaviour with flocks consisting of 4-15 individuals with most of the individuals contributing to breeding activities. Social organisation, relatedness within flocks and helping behaviour will be analysed by combining microsatellite data with behavioural observations. Potential ecological constraints causing the evolution of cooperative breeding will be examined, as well as possible direct benefit gained by helpers at the nest. Experimental manipulation of the possible constraint of limited nest site availability by implementation of an artificial nest box scheme will reveal its influence on social organisation. Skewed sex ratio as further likely ecological constraint will be examined by genetic analyses. Degree of habitat fragmentation influencing population size and differentiation between populations by means of lowered dispersal abilities will be analysed across the whole species range as possible indirect factor of determining social organisation.

Universität Freiburg
Biologie I, Zoologie
Nadine Klauke

Universität Freiburg
Wildtierökologie
Dr. Gernot Segelbacher

Universität Freiburg
Institut für Biologie 1
Evolutionsbiologie und Tierökologie
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Martin Schaefer

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Freiburg
Biologie I, Zoologie
Nadine Klauke
Hauptstraße 1
79104 Freiburg
Tel.: 0761 203 2527
Fax: 0761 203 2544
Homepage: www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/bio1/schaefer/nadine.html

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Doktorandenstipendium "Female social relationships in wild crested macaques, Macaca nigra, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  4 Jahre

Two major theories addressing the diversity of social styles in female primates have been developed: the socioecological model and the co-variation hypothesis. Although much debated, empirical data supporting either of both theories are still limited. The project's aim is therefore to examine the relevance of these theories using crested macaques, Macaca nigra, as model. Crested macaques are of particular interest in this respect, first as they are described as having a tolerant social system, about which little is known, and second because of their unusual evolutionary history and ecological living conditions. Two wild groups living in the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, will be studied. Data on social behaviours and genetic relatedness of females as well as on ecological parameters will be collected. This will generate important new data about the complex social behaviours within tolerant wild macaques and will allow to further address the two theories concerning the diversity of female primate social relationships as well as to improve our general understanding of the evolution of social systems in primates.

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Reproduktionsbiologie
Julie Duboscq
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 5831 202
Fax: 0551 3851 288

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Dept. of Reproductive Biology
Dr. Antje Engelhardt
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 3851202
Fax: 0551 3851 288

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Doktorandenstipendium "Evolution of the male genitalia in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Das Vorhaben wurde am 11.02.2011 von Wien nach Köln umgesetzt.

A central question in evolutionary biology is to understand how morphology evolves. Recently, considerable progress has been made in identifying the molecular changes underlying variation in many traits. Nevertheless, many aspects of morphological evolution remain poorly understood, such as the molecular basis of variation in complex traits like organ size and shape, and the contribution of standing genetic variation to inter-specific differences. The morphology of the posterior genital lobe of male Drosophila varies dramatically between species and therefore is an excellent model to address these issues. Previously QTL analysis identified 19 genomic regions responsible for inter-specific variation in this structure. This proposal will investigate the molecular basis of intra- and inter-specific posterior lobe differences using high-resolution mapping of the QTL regions, and subsequently functional analysis of candidate genes. By studying the molecular basis for the evolution of a complex trait, this proposal will broaden our knowledge of how morphology evolves.

Universität Köln
Biozentrum Köln
Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie
Corinna Hopfen

Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Institut für Populationsgenetik
Dr. Alistair Peter McGregor
ÖSTERREICH

Universität Göttingen
Developmental Biology
Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institute
for Zoology and Anthropology
Prof. Dr. Ernst Anton Wimmer

Universität Köln
Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie
Prof. Dr. Siegfried Roth

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Köln
Biozentrum Köln
Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie
Corinna Hopfen
Postfach
50674 Köln

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "Cranial evolution and biomechanics in biphasic amphibian ontogenies"

 

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Amphibians show a high degree of diversity in their feeding habits. Amphibian larvae use suction feeding (caecilians and salamanders) or mucus-entrapment suspension feeding (frogs). Adult amphibians feed by suction (paedomorphic salamanders), biting (caecilians), tongue protraction (most terrestrial salamanders) or tongue projection (frogs and some plethodontid salamanders). Some of this diversity in feeding strategies is due to the biphasic lifecycle of amphibians in that larval and adult lifestyle (aquatic vs. terrestrial) have different functional demands on the feeding structures. However, the biphasic lifecycle also puts developmental constraints on the evolution of feeding structures, adult structures dependent on larval structures. This trade off between specializations for larval and adult feeding modes in combination with the ontogenetic linkage of larval and adult feeding structures makes amphibians an important model to study the evolution of feeding biomechanics in vertebrates. Here, high resolution µCT, geometric morphometrics, histology, rapid prototyping, and biomechanical modeling will be applied in species of caecilians, salamanders, and frogs to get an integrative view on the evolution, development and function of the cranium in amphibians.

Universität Hamburg
Department Biologie
Biozentrum Grindel und
Zoologisches Museum
Thomas Kleinteich

University of California, Irvine, CA
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Physiology
Adam P. Summers
USA

Universität Hamburg
FB Biologie
Biozentrum Grindel und Zoologisches Museum
Abteilung Herpetologie
Prof. Dr. Alexander Haas

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Hamburg
Department Biologie
Biozentrum Grindel und
Zoologisches Museum
Thomas Kleinteich
Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3
20146 Hamburg
Tel.: 040 42838 5628
Fax: 040 42838 3937
Homepage: http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/zim/herpe/kleinteich.html

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Doktorandenstipendium "Methods for natural selection mapping in plants"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Current evolutionary research aims at linking genotypic with phenotypic variation to explain the origin of biological diversity and to elucidate the role of natural selection. This project aims at identifying regions with a footprint of natural selection in plant genomes, which are for example characterized by low diversity or strong haplotype structure. To some degree, these patterns are also influenced by other factors such as variation in recombination rates and the density of transposable elements and genes. To investigate the interaction of these processes, simulation tools for genomic data will be developed and simulated data will be compared with empirical data to identify selected regions with improved accuracy. Data from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana will mainly be used for analysis. Furthermore, phenotypic variation in a number of traits in many accessions of A. thaliana will be associated with selected regions to test whether fitness-related traits are more frequently associated with regions carrying a footprint of selection than with random regions. Using this approach, it will be possible to make statements on the evolutionary and genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in plants.

Universität Hohenheim
Nutzpflanzendiversität und
Züchtungsinformatik
Torsten Günther
Fruwirthstrasse 21
70593 Stuttgart

Universität Hohenheim
Nutzpflanzendiversität und
Züchtungsinformatik
Prof. Dr. Karl J. Schmid
Fruwirthstr. 21
70593 Stuttgart
Tel.: 0711 459 23487
Fax: 0711 459 22343

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Postdoktorandenstipendium "The effect of positive selection on the frequency spectrum of partially linked sites in non-equilibrium populations"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

The detection of genomic regions that have been targeted by positive Darwinian selection is an important objective in population genetics. However, this task is very challenging, in particular for populations that are not in equilibrium. The main focus of this project is on the development of theoretical methods for quantifying the genomic signature of strongly positive directional selection in populations that have undergone complex demographic histories, such as population size expansions and bottlenecks. Analytical results will be derived using diffusion theory. To improve current estimates of demographic parameters, weak positive and negative selection at sites along the genome will also be incorporated into the diffusion framework. Furthermore, properties of linkage disequilibrium under variable population size will be investigated to extend the capabilities to discriminate demographic from selective events. The derived theoretical results will be integrated into statistical tests to detect traces of positive selection in nonequilibrium populations.

Universität München
Dept. Biologie II
Evolutionsbiologie
Daniel Zivkovic
Grosshaderner Straße 2
82152 Planegg-Martinsried

Universität München
Lehrstuhl für Evolutionsbiologie
Dept. Biologie
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Stephan
Grosshaderner Straße 2
82152 Planegg-Martinsried
Tel.: 089 218 074 102
Fax: 089 218 074 104
Homepage: http://www.zi.biologie.uni-muenchen.de/evol/EvoBio.html

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Doktorandenstipendium "Impact of hybridization on the evolution of green monkeys (Chlorocebus)"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Jahre

Natural hybridization became apparent to be an important evolutionary mechanism not only in plants but also in animals, resulting in genetic diversification and sometimes even new taxa. The impact of hybridization has been detected by phylogenetic and population genetic analyses in contact zones of various primate taxa, for example in baboons (Papio) and macaques (Macaca). Green monkeys (Chlorocebus) represent similar to baboons a widespread genus in Sub-Saharan Africa and several contact zones between taxa of the genus are known. In this project (1) the phylogeny of Chlorocebus and (2) the possible impact of natural hybridization on speciation processes will be investigated with molecular genetic methods in two contact zones in West and East Africa. Green monkeys as natural hosts of exogenous retroviruses are of particular interest for the study of viruses and are therefore an important model in biomedical research. The reconstruction of an accurate and well supported green monkey phylogeny will provide fundamentals to investigate and understand the co-evolution of host and virus.

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Kognitive Ethologie
Tanja Haus

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Kognitive Ethologie
Dr. Dietmar Zinner

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Primatengenetik
Dr. Christian Roos

Ansprechpartner:
Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Kognitive Ethologie
Tanja Haus
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 3851 129
Fax: 0551 3851 228

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Weitere Bewilligungen

Ausbildungskonzept "Munich Graduate Program for Evolution, Ecology and Systematics (EES LMU)" (Weiterführung und Abschluss)

Bewilligung: 27.08.2009  Laufzeit:

The Munich Graduate School for Evolution, Ecology and Systematics (EESLMU) is a collaboration between the Biology and Geology Department of the LMU, the MPI for Ornithology in Seewiesen and the Bavarian Natural History Collections. The Master program was launched in 2007 and is focused on integrating the international cohort of students in research early-on, on teaching soft skills and critical thinking. Close student-teacher interactions by a mentoring program as well as student initiatives are supported. In 2009, a PhD program started based on the same principles. During the last three years, summer schools, a seminar series and a yearly EES conference were organized to promote evolutionary biology at the LMU and beyond. In the next three years, the Master program will grow considerably, because the first LMU Bachelor students will enter the program in 2010. It is still intended to attract foreign students to keep the international atmosphere and to intensify collaborations within Munich and with other universities in Germany and Europe. The PhD program will be consolidated and integrated with other initiatives at the university. In addition, Bachelor students will be encouraged to get involved in the EES program, through a mentoring program with student mentors and by encouraging Master and PhD students to offer thesis topics to Bachelor students. All these activities will help to provide the best training for students and young researchers in evolutionary biology in Munich.

Universität München
Dept. Biologie II
Verhaltensökologie
Prof. Dr. Susanne Foitzik
Großhaderner Straße 2
82152 Planegg-Martinsried
Tel.: 089 218 074 209
Fax: 089 218 074 221
Homepage: http://www.biologie.uni-muenchen.de/ou/ecology/etho_e

Universität München
Biozentrum
Dept. Biologie II
Evolutionsbiologie
Dr. Pleuni S. Pennings
Großhaderner Straße 2
82152 Planegg-Martinsried
Tel.: 089 218 074 234
Fax: 089 218 074 104
Homepage: http://www.zi.biologie.uni-muenchen.de

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Gastprofessur "Evolution of the central olfactory pathway in basal insects and crustaceans - insights into the phylogeny of Arthropoda"

Bewilligung: 08.04.2009  Laufzeit:  3 Monate

Prof. Dr. Nicholas James Strausfeld, currently Professor of Neurobiology and Neurology at the University of Arizona, will stay for three months at the Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology at the MPI for Chemical Ecology in Jena. Prof. Strausfeld's research topic is the evolution of arthropod olfactory pathways. The core expertise of Professor Strausfeld lies in the field of comparative, evolutionary neurobiology with a focus on neuroanatomy. His studies have a major impact on our understanding how brain structures change during evolution in response to environmental and ecological changes. His studies, although focused on the rather small brains of arthropods, nevertheless also help to understand the principles that guided the evolution of the vertebrate brain including humans. The aim is to combine Professor Strausfeld's outstanding knowledge of the arthropod nervous system with the current studies at the MPI on olfactory pathways. Prof. Strausfeld will also be involved in teaching activities at two German universities (Jena, Greifswald) to strengthen the interaction between academic institutions and the Max Planck Institute. Lastly, Prof. Strausfeld will be involved in public lectures that aim at enhancing the public understanding of evolutionary biology.

Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische
Ökologie, Jena
Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology
Prof. Dr. Bill Hansson

The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Arizona Research Laboratories
Division of Neurobiology
Gould-Simpson Bldg. Rm. 415
Prof. Dr. Nicholas James Strausfeld
USA

Universität Greifswald
Zoologisches Institut
Abt. Cytologie und Evolutionsbiologie
Prof. Dr. Steffen Harzsch

Ansprechpartner:
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische
Ökologie, Jena
Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology
Prof. Dr. Bill Hansson
Hans-Knöll-Str. 8
07745 Jena
Tel.: +49 3641 57 1400

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Hybridization in Primates - Evidence, Extent, Evolutionary Impact and Problems

07.10.2009 - 10.10.2009 in Göttingen

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Kognitive Ethologie
Dr. Dietmar Zinner
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 3851 129
Fax: 0551 3851 372

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen
Abt. Primatengenetik
Dr. Christian Roos
Kellnerweg 4
37077 Göttingen
Tel.: 0551 3851 300
Fax: 0551 3851 228
Homepage: http://www.dpz.eu/index.php?id=621

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Workshops on Evolution and Diseases of Civilization

12.10.2009 - 15.10.2009 in Berlin

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Campus Mitte
Dr. Mazda Adli
Charitéplatz 1
10117 Berlin
Tel.: 030 450 570 003
Fax: 030 450 570 900

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Department of Psychology
1012 East Hall, Room 3018
Prof. Dr. Randolph Nesse
530 Church Street
USA, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Tel.: +1 734 764 6593
Fax: +1 801 601 0525
Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~nesse/

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Darwin - Die Evolution und unser heutiges Bild vom Menschen

05.11.2009 - 07.11.2009 in Dresden

Stiftung Deutsches Hygiene-Museum, Dresden
Anja Sommer

VBIO-Verband Biologie, Biowissenschaften
und Biomedizin in Deutschland e.V.
VBIO - Landesverband Sachsen
Universitätsklinikum "Carl-Gustav-Carus"
Klinik für Psychotherapie und Psychosomatik
AG Neurobiologie
Vorsitzender
Prof. Dr. Jochen Oehler

Stiftung Deutsches Hygiene-Museum, Dresden
Direktor
Prof. Dr. Klaus Vogel

Ansprechpartner:
Stiftung Deutsches Hygiene-Museum, Dresden
Anja Sommer
Lingnerplatz 1
01069 Dresden
Tel.: 0351 4846 107
Fax: 0351 4513846 101
Homepage: www.dhmd.de

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EMPSEB - 15th Annual European Meeting of PhD students in Evolutionary Biology

14.08.2009 - 19.08.2009 in Schoorl/NL

University of Groningen
Theoretical Biology Group
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies
Ana Duarte
Postfach P.O. Box 14
9750 AA Haren
NIEDERLANDE
Tel.: +31 50 363 8085
Fax: +31 50 363 3400
Homepage: http://www.rug.nl/biologie/onderzoek/onderzoekgroepen/theoreticalbiology/peoplePages/anaPage

Wageningen University
Resource Ecology Group
Rudy Jonker
Droevendaalsesteeg 3a
6708 PB Wageningen
NIEDERLANDE
Tel.: +31 317 48 53 04
Fax: +31 317 48 48 45
Homepage: http://www.reg.wur.nl/UK/Staff/Jonker

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Henning-Symposium on Evolution and Phylogenetics
30.09.2009 - 02.10.2009 in Universität Hohenheim

Universität Hohenheim
Institut für Zoologie
Prof. Dr. Martin Blum

Universität Stuttgart
Geo- und Biowissenschaften
Biologisches Institut
Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Görtz

Universität Hohenheim
Tierökologie 220c
Institut für Zoologie
Prof. Dr. Johannes Steidle

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Hohenheim
Institut für Zoologie
Prof. Dr. Martin Blum
Garbenstraße 30
70593 Stuttgart
Tel.: 0711 4592 2255
Fax: 0711 4592 3450
Homepage: http://www.uni-hohenheim.de

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