European Platform

Bewilligungen / Grants 2007

Approaching the Dreaming Mind: Experimental Modification of Dreams within a New Neurophilosophical Framework

Bewilligung: 20.07.2007 Laufzeit: 2 Jahre

The field of empiric dream research unites diverse theoretical and
methodological approaches to the dreaming mind, but at the same time
is fragmented by a number of ongoing controversies. In the philosophy
of mind, the relevance of dreaming to consciousness research is
increasingly being recognized. The goal of this collaboration is to
promote the integration of philosophy, neurosciences, and psychology
in contemporary dream research and to find fresh ways of approaching
unresolved questions and controversies. These include conceptual
issues, such as finding a suitable definition of dreaming, but also
the discussion on the neural correlates of dreaming and the
problematic relationship between dreaming and the different stages of
REM and NREM sleep, as well as the problem of how to relate dreaming
to consciousness research in general. It is planned to develop a
differentiated, multi-level neurophilosophical framework that is
capable of accounting for the inherent variability of dreaming on both
the phenomenological and the neurophysiological levels of description.
In addition, the assessment of the ongoing process of collaboration
between the members of the group from an anthropological perspective
will add an additional level of reflection to this project.

University of Turku
Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience
Dept. of Psychology
Valdas Noreika
FINNLAND

Universität Tübingen
Institut für Medizinische Psychologie &
Verhaltensneurobiologie
Dr. Ahmed A. Karim

University of California, Berkeley
Dept. of Anthropology
Dr. Nicolas Langlitz
USA

Universität Mainz
Philosophisches Seminar
Jennifer Windt

École Polytechnique Fédérale
de Lausanne (EPFL)
Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience (LNCO)
Brain Mind Institute
Bigna Lenggenhager, Ph. D.
SCHWEIZ

Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
Epilepsiezentrum
Neurozentrum, Raum 324
Dr. Tonio Ball

Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
Neurocentre
Freiburg Brain Imaging
Dr. Isabella Mutschler

Universität Tübingen
Institut für Medizinische Psychologie &
Verhaltensneurobiologie
Dr. Ahmed A. Karim

University of California, Berkeley
Dept. of Anthropology
Dr. Nicolas Langlitz
USA

École Polytechnique Fédérale
de Lausanne (EPFL)
Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience (LNCO)
Brain Mind Institute
Bigna Lenggenhager, Ph. D.
SCHWEIZ

Universität Mainz
Philosophisches Seminar
Jennifer Windt

Ansprechpartner:
University of Turku
Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience
Dept. of Psychology
Valdas Noreika
Assistentinkatu 7
FIN-20014 Turku
FINNLAND
Tel.: 00 358 2 336984
Fax: +358 2 3335060
Homepage: http://www.psy.utu.fi/henkilot/valdasnoreika.htm

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Neuroscience in Context. Critical Perspectives, Neuroethics, and Anthropology 

Bewilligung: 20.07.2007 Laufzeit: 2 Jahre

In response to the scientific as well as public and cultural developments in and around the neurosciences, this research group bridges perspectives from philosophy, anthropology, ethics and experimental neuroscience. This project is informed by a meta-scientific stance called "Critical Neuroscience" and is being developed so that the questions, implications, and dynamics within this field and the consequences for individuals, society at large and even the entire human species can be systematically understood. Overall, this project aims at a wide-ranging contextualization of current neuroscientific practice. It combines three closely interconnected interdisciplinary projects. Project 1 assesses the impact of the advancing neurosciences and neurotechnologies on individual human beings. Project 2 develops the idea of "Critical Neuroscience". It assesses and informs neuroscientific practice and develops a risk taxonomy, which highlights and analyses practical and epistemic risks resulting from neuroscience and its applications, as well as those societal developments which threaten to put neuroscience itself at risk. Project 3 seeks to provide contributions to a contemporary anthropology that contextualizes the concept of man in light of new (Neuro)technologies. 

Universität Osnabrück
Institut für Kognitionswissenschaft
Dr. Jan Slaby, M. A.

Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec
Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry
Dr. Suparna Choudhury
KANADA

Europäische Akademie zur Erforschung von Folgen  wissenschaftlich-technischer Entwicklungen Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH
Dr. Thorsten Galert

Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Jan-Christoph Heilinger

Universität Tübingen
Institut für Medizinische Psychologie & Verhaltensneurobiologie
Dr. Ahmed A. Karim

Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
Philosophisches Institut
Dr. Felicitas Krämer

University of Cambridge
McDonald Institute
Dr. Lambros Malafouris
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Universität Osnabrück
Institut für Kognitionswissenschaft
Saskia K. Nagel

Universität Bonn
Abt. für Medizinische Psychologie
Stephan Schleim

Ansprechpartner:
Universität Osnabrück
Institut für Kognitionswissenschaft
Dr. Jan Slaby, M. A.
Albrechtstraße 28
49076 Osnabrück
Tel.: 0541 969 3358
Fax: 0541 969 3381
Homepage: http://www.cogsci.uni-osnabrueck.de/

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Finding Culturally (In)Dependent Levels of Self-Representation: The Case of Emotions 

Bewilligung: 20.07.2007 Laufzeit: 2 Jahre

In this project the philosophical differentiation between non-conceptual, conceptual, and propositional self-representations will be applied to refine the definition of self-construals as used in cross-cultural and social psychology. The psychological distinction between independent and interdependent self-construals originates from cross-cultural differences and has been shown to differentially impact individual cognition and behaviour. The different types of self-construals will be examined for the domain of emotions,referring to the distinction between basic universal emotions like fear,and on secondary cognitive emotions like shame, which presuppose certain cognitive capacities such as a concept of the self. The main questions will be (a) which particular aspects of emotion processing are non-propositional and which aspects are affected by cultural affiliation? (b) Are there differences in the emotions themselves in respect to different levels of representation, such that secondary cognitive emotions are culturally variant, while basic emotions are not? Altogether it is planned to revise the conception of the self from a multidisciplinary perspective including the development of new experimental paragdigms.

Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften
Standort Leipzig
Abt. für Psychologie
Dr. Anne Springer

Universität Bochum
Institut für Philosophie - GA3
Dr. Tobias Schlicht

Universität Bochum
Institut für Philosophie
Gottfried Vosgerau

Max-Planck-Institut für neurologische Forschung, Köln
Arbeitsgruppe Morphometrie und Kognition
Dr. Kirsten G. Volz

Universität Köln
Dept. of Psychiatry
Dr. Leonhard Schilbach

Humboldt-Universität Berlin
Institut für Klinische Psychologie
Dr. Daniela Simon

Universität Tübingen
Philosophisches Seminar
Alexandra Zinck

Technische Universität Berlin
Bio-Neuropsychologie FR 3-8
Dipl.-Psych. Martin Schmidt-Daffy

Ansprechpartner:
Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften
Standort Leipzig
Abt. für Psychologie
Dr. Anne Springer
Stephanstraße 1 A
04103 Leipzig
Tel.: 0341 9940217
Fax: 0341 9940204
Homepage: http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/philosophy/emotion/Home.html

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How do we make decisions?

Bewilligung: 30.05.2007 Laufzeit: 1 Jahr 6 Monate

Das Vorhaben wurde am 13.01.2010 von Amsterdam nach Amsterdam umgesetzt.

Decision-making is fundamental to everyday life and involves processes in the human brain that are far from understood. In this project, the following three key issues related to this process have been identified and will be explored in depth by six interdisciplinary teams: (i) Option Generation, (ii) Irrationality and (iii) Social Interaction. The overall goal of the project is to formulate a new conceptual framework that spans the different areas and approaches and which can be rigorously tested. Moreover, new experimental paradigms will be developed that can be applied across disciplines. During the working phase there will be two group meetings and a set of smaller meetings, each with additional experts from the outside. In addition, the publication of manuscripts as well as initial pilot studies are planned.

University of Amsterdam (UvA)
Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences
Dr. Tobias Kalenscher
NIEDERLANDE

Università degli Studi di Trento
Palazzo Fedrigotti
Dr. Giovanna Colombetti
ITALIEN

Universität Heidelberg
Klinik für Allgemeine Psychiatrie
Zentrum für Psychosoziale Medizin
Stellvertretender Leiter
Dr. Stefan Kaiser

Ansprechpartner:
University of Amsterdam (UvA)
Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences
Dr. Tobias Kalenscher
Postbus 94246
1090 GE Amsterdam
NIEDERLANDE
Tel.: +31 20 525 8374
Fax: +31 20 525 7709
Homepage: http://home.medewerker.uva.nl/t.kalenscher/

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Subjective Time - Phenomenological Property or Cognitive Construct? 

Bewilligung: 03.04.2007 Laufzeit: 2 Jahre

We call time which allows us to experience things or events as enduring, changing or staying the same, subjective time. Is phenomenal consciousness structured so as to enable us to experience subjective time? A view which answers this question in the affirmative, takes subjective time to be a phenomenal property. It takes phenomenal consciousness to have the property of being structured, so as to allow for experiences through and over time. The opposing view denies that phenomenal consciousness has such a structure, arguing instead that phenomenal experiences take place at discrete instances in time. The aim of this project will be to look for empirical evidence from cognitive neuroscience, consciousness studies, and psychophysics which might decide between these two views of phenomenal consciousness. Three thematic workshops will be organised around questions which tackle the dispute between these two accounts of phenomenal consciousness. The first will be the broadest in scope, the second and third workshops will focus on the more specific questions of the relation between timing in perception and the timing of neural events, and differences in experience of time, respectively. Two training workshops will be a forum for the exchange of knowledge within the interdisciplinary team. 

University of Edinburgh
Dept. of Philosophy
3rd Floor, David Hume Tower
Dr. Julian Kiverstein
GROSSBRITANNIEN

University of Turku
Dept. of Philosophy
Dr. Valtteri Arstila
FINNLAND

University of Cambridge
Dept. of Experimental Psychology
Dr. Cordula Becker
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Universität Magdeburg
Institut für Psychologie
Abt. Biologische Psychologie
Dr. Niko A. Busch

University of Cambridge
Dept. of Experimental Psychology
Christine Michaela Falter
GROSSBRITANNIEN

University of Tartu
Dept. of Philosophy
Bruno Mölder
ESTLAND

University of Turku
Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience
Dept. of Psychology
Valdas Noreika
FINNLAND

Universität München
Allgemeine und Experimentelle Psychologie
Agnieszka Wykowska

Ansprechpartner:
University of Edinburgh
Dept. of Philosophy
3rd Floor, David Hume Tower
Dr. Julian Kiverstein
George Square
Edinburgh EH8 9JX
GROSSBRITANNIEN
Tel.: +44 7792 652394

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Pain: Why Others Matter/Psychological, Philosophical & Neuroscientific Perspectives 

Bewilligung: 03.04.2007 Laufzeit: 2 Jahre

The precise nature of pain remains an enigma for philosophy, a challenge for science and a highly important problem for medicine. Pain's riddle lies within its unique affiliation with both the mind and the body, and its multifaceted character. Namely, pain comprises both a discriminative somatic sensation and a subjective emotion. For decades, the dominant line of scientific research has pursued pain as the sensory product of signals of tissue injury arriving at the cortex. However, many psychological studies support that empathy and compassion are fundamental to the process of delivering effective care to people in pain. The project will focus on the social dimension of pain and will attempt to re-address the above balance in pain research. In particular, it aims to investigate the psychosocial determinants of pain awareness and their neural correlates. It will capitalise on the experimental and neuroimaging paradigms that have been recently developed to study empathy for pain, in order to study how empathy, and more generally interpersonal factors, can modulate the subjective experience of pain. 

King's College, London
Psychological Medicine
Institute of Psychiatry
Dr. Aikaterini Fotopoulou
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften
Standort Leipzig
Abt. für Psychologie
Dr. Anne Springer

CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, Paris
Centre de Recherche en Epistémologie Appliquée
Dr. Dorothee Legrand
FRANKREICH

University College London
Dept. of Psychology & Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dr. Manos Tsakiris
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Universität Köln
Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Nicole David

Ansprechpartner:
King's College, London
Psychological Medicine
Institute of Psychiatry
Dr. Aikaterini Fotopoulou
South Wing, Block 8
London SE1 7EH
GROSSBRITANNIEN
Tel.: +44 207 1880204
Fax: +44 207 633061

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Are thoughts motor processes? 

Bewilligung: 03.04.2007 Laufzeit: 3 Jahre

Das Vorhaben wurde am  09.03.2010 von Bochum nach Düsseldorf umgesetzt.

Contrary to the classical view in philosophy and cognitive sciences, recent accounts in philosophy of mind and cognitive neuroscience view thoughts not as a special kind of mental representation, but as motor representations that are not systematically different from those involved in motor processes. In particular, these accounts propose that thoughts might be generated, controlled and modified in the same way as motor processes, that is, by resorting to internal comparator mechanisms, which would compare intentions to think with the actual thoughts in the stream of consciousness ("thought comparators"). The present project yields at critically scrutinizing the motor account of thoughts in more detail, both on empirical and on conceptual grounds. It will in particular (i) compare recent motor accounts of thoughts with classical cognitive accounts, thereby developing a genuinely new non-motor, naturalistic framework of thoughts. (ii) It will probe the postulated "thought comparator" by testing its two main functions: to provide authorship of thoughts and to allow accurate thought generation. While the former function will be tested by an analysis of the phenomenon of thought insertion in schizophrenia patients, the latter function will be explored by a neuropsychological study about potential "dysmetria of thought" in cerebellar patients.

Universität Düsseldorf
Philosophisches Institut
Jun.-Prof. Dr. Gottfried Vosgerau
Universitätsstr. 1
40225 Düsseldorf

Universität Tübingen
Hertie-Institut für Klinische Hirnforschung
Abt. für Neurodegeneration & Abt. für
Kognitive Neurologie
Dr. Matthis Synofzik
Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3
72076 Tübingen
Tel.: 07071 2982060
Fax: 07071 295957
Homepage: http://www.hih-tuebingen.de/index.php?id=119&L=1

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The Body-Project: interdisciplinary investigations on bodily experiences 

Bewilligung: 02.04.2007 Laufzeit: 2 Jahre

Das Vorhaben wurde am  17.09.2007 von London nach Egham, Surrey umgesetzt.

The body, as the subject or the object of our experience, mediates all our interactions between our mind and the world. Not surprisingly, both the human experience of the body itself and the concepts used to depict it are steeped in cultural and intellectual history. However, the experience of the body is rarely invoked in a unanimous manner in life sciences, mind sciences and the humanities. Could the experience of one's body be conceptualized as a straight physiological process, a psychological structure, or an essentially private, scientifically inaccessible, subjective event? The project prototypical combines different components of bodily experience: the sense of body-ownership ("this my body"); the sense of agency ("this is my action"); the bodily first-person perspective (e.g. "the pen is to my left"). Eight focused and interrelated research projects will investigate the complex interdependent relations between body and actions, body and self, and body and world.

Royal Holloway University of London, London
Psychology Dept.
Dr. Manos Tsakiris
GROSSBRITANNIEN

King's College, London
Psychological Medicine
Institute of Psychiatry
Dr. Aikaterini Fotopoulou
GROSSBRITANNIEN

CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, Paris
Centre de Recherche en Epistémologie
Appliquée
Dr. Dorothee Legrand
FRANKREICH

Universität Tübingen
Hertie-Institut für Klinische Hirnforschung
Abt. für Neurodegeneration & Abt. für
Kognitive Neurologie
Dr. Matthis Synofzik

École Polytechnique Fédérale
de Lausanne (EPFL)
Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience (LNCO)
Brain Mind Institute
Bigna Lenggenhager
SCHWEIZ

Rheinisch-Westfälische
Technische Hochschule Aachen
Abt. für Philosophie
Philipp Huebl

Universität Köln
Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Nicole David

University of Cambridge
McDonald Institute
Dr. Lambros Malafouris
GROSSBRITANNIEN

Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions-
und Neurowissenschaften
Standort Leipzig, Leipzig
Dr. Simone Schütz-Bosbach

Universität Mainz
Abt. für Philosophie
Jennifer Windt

Ansprechpartner:
Royal Holloway University of London, London
Psychology Dept.
Dr. Manos Tsakiris
Postfach
Egham, Surrey  TW20 0EX
GROSSBRITANNIEN

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